@ 2008.05.16 , 13:56
62

戒烟:老问题,也是新问题(一)

如果你是吸烟者,不需要有人告诉你其坏处。为什么你不戒掉?为什么每个人仍然在抽烟?
因为吸烟的感觉很好。它刺激,并且能让大脑同时得到舒缓和满足。烟中所含的尼古丁在吸食过程中能立即释放出多巴胺和其他的神经化学药物并迅速冲击大脑的快乐中心。烟草烟雾的吸入是用尼古丁激发大脑的最快捷,最有效的方式。
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“我完全明白为何你不能戒掉它”,美国国家卫生研究院的成瘾研究员大卫.艾布拉姆斯博士说: “戒掉尼古丁其实比戒掉海洛因或可卡因更难” 。
吸烟“劫持”了你大脑中的奖励系统即驱使你去寻求食物,水和性的能力,艾布拉姆斯博士解释说,驱驶你以相同的紧迫感去寻求尼古丁。“你的大脑认为,这是生存所必须的”,他说。
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尼古丁对每个人的上瘾程度是不同的。有很多人不吸烟,因为他们从一开始就不喜欢。而有些“随意者”,他们偶尔吸烟,但似乎从来没有被烟所“钩住”。但大多数的吸烟者最终将要整天吸,天天吸。
在遗传学方面新的发现也许可以解释为什么某些人将吸烟作为爱好而最终沉迷于其中。有些人,举例来说,作出一个基因编码的酶来迅速从他们的血流中除掉尼古丁,然而他们趋向于吸更多的烟而其烟瘾会发展地更强烈。其他人在大脑中对尼古丁额外而强烈地依赖而具有特殊受体,使他们的烟瘾及其强烈,这使得戒烟非常困难。
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有些制药商正利用成瘾的科学原理来创建新的治疗方法以帮助吸烟者戒烟。最新的用于停止吸烟的药物在十年前首先要获得批准,即所谓的Chantix 。处方中所提供的有效成分,即Cchantix伪装成尼古丁很好占据了大脑中的尼古丁受体,它可能会减轻烟瘾。一道来的真正的尼古丁,无法找到足够的空闲受体来发挥自己的作用 。 Chantix似乎比Zyban(一种抗抑郁剂,有利于平衡多巴胺的水平)具有较高的成功率。最近公布的为帮助吸烟者戒烟的联邦医生指引指出,该药物,结合尼古丁替代品并使用尼古丁喷鼻剂或所需的口香糖,比单纯使用尼古丁替代品对长期戒烟会有更好的效果。
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医生已经开具了使用Chantix的数以百万计的处方,虽然对该药物的热情因有服用者自杀和行为古怪而有所平息。在2008年初始美国食品和药物管理局对Chantix的安全性已经发出了安全警告的报告。
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TOTAL COMMENTS: 62+1

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  1. 拂晓
    @5 years ago
    1257895

    百思得三叶吸品,集控烟戒烟、香烟替代为一体的新型健康吸品,将银杏叶、薄荷叶、枸杞叶、甘草、蜂蜜等四十多种原辅料,采用专利技术精制而成, 是针对烟瘾的双重性而研制的。它特有的尼古丁抗体(银杏苦内脂)能快速化解体内尼古丁毒素,重新调整机体代谢功能,让人摆脱对尼古丁的依赖。同时,借助这种抽吸方式,烟民可以很轻松自然的逐步根除抽烟习惯(精神依赖)。“百思得”三叶吸品改变了人类关于吸烟-戒烟的概念,是戒烟的最佳产品。
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